Archive for: ‘August 2011’

Women’s Fertility related to oral health

August 17, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

Women who are trying to become pregnant should look after their oral health, a fertility expert announced at the 2011 European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology meeting in Stockholm earlier this week. According to the preliminary research presented, gum disease can potentially lengthen the time it takes a woman to become pregnant by an average of two months.
Periodontal treatment no harm to newborns
“Our data suggest that the presence of periodontal disease is a modifiable risk factor, which can increase a woman’s time to conception, particularly for non-Caucasians,” Roger Hart, Professor of Reproductive Medicine at the University of Western Australia and Medical Director of Fertility Specialists of Western Australia, said. “It exerts a negative influence on fertility that is of the same order of magnitude as obesity.”
In their study, Hart and colleagues analysed data from over 3,400 pregnant women from Western Australia. They found that women with gum disease took two months longer on average to conceive than women without gum disease (seven months instead of five). Non-Caucasian women appeared to be the group most affected. They were likely to take more than 12 months to become pregnant if they had gum disease.
“All women about to plan for a family should be encouraged to see their general practitioner to ensure that they are as healthy as possible before trying to conceive,” Hart recommends. “Additionally, it now appears that all women should also be encouraged to see their dentist to have any gum disease treated before trying to conceive.”
In addition, the study confirmed other known negative influences on a woman’s time to conception, such as being over 35 years of age, being overweight or obese, and being a smoker. It also demonstrated conclusively that while treatment of periodontal disease does not prevent pre-term birth in any ethnic group, the treatment does not have any harmful effect on the mother or foetus during pregnancy.

Lost Weight Vitamin

August 17, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

Want to save money on vitamins? One option could be to lose weight. Researchers say overweight or obese women in a diet-and-exercise program who lost more than 15 percent of their weight gained 8 nanograms of vitamin D per milliliter of blood.
Caitlin Mason of Seattle’s Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center:
“That’s an amount that could be equivalent to taking a multivitamin with about 800 international units of vitamin D in it, for a few months.’’ (8 seconds)
This is about double what is currently recommended. But Americans – especially those who are overweight or obese – tend to be low on vitamin D, which helps to build bone strength and may help against diabetes and cancer.
The study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition was supported by the National Institutes of Health.

Second- Hand flu Vaccine

August 17, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

Babies of mothers who get flu vaccinations seem to pick up protection in the womb. A study found this in data on 1,500 babies younger than 6 months who had been hospitalized for flu-like symptoms in the 2002 to 2009 flu seasons. Those babies are too young for their own vaccination.
At Wake Forest University, Kathy Poehling says babies were less likely to have the flu if their mothers had been vaccinated while pregnant. So she advises mothers to get vaccinated:
“Not only do they personally benefit, but there’s additional benefits for their children.’’ (4 seconds)

Antidepressants Don’t Impact Stimulants’ Efficacy in ADHD

August 17, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

Concomitant use of antidepressants doesn’t affect osmotic release oral system methylphenidate
In adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), concomitant use of antidepressants does not affect the safety or efficacy of osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH), according to a study published online Aug. 5 in CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics.

Joseph Biederman, M.D., from Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, and colleagues examined whether the response to OROS-MPH was moderated by the concomitant use of antidepressants in adults with ADHD. A total of 223 patients with anxiety disorders and depression were analyzed, including 109 in the OROS-MPH group and 114 in the placebo group. Patients treated with a stable medication regimen of non-monoamine oxidase inhibitor antidepressants or benzodiazepines for at least three months were enrolled. Patients were required to have Hamilton-Depression and Hamilton-Anxiety scales below 15 (mild range) at the time they were enrolled.

The investigators found no association between concomitant antidepressant use at baseline and ADHD response, OROS-MPH dose, study completion rate, adverse effects, or worsening of anxiety or depression. There was nominally significant evidence of a lifetime history of mood or anxiety disorders being a moderator of ADHD symptoms. A potential moderator of dose at end point was a lifetime history of substance use disorder.

“We found few moderating effects in this large clinical trial of OROS-MPH in adults with ADHD, which supports the robustness of the clinical response to OROS-MPH in adult ADHD despite variable clinical pictures,” the authors write.

Silence is golden during eye injections

August 17, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

If you’re getting a drug injection for macular degeneration or another eye condition, a new study suggests you might want to make sure your doctor doesn’t talk while doing the procedure.

Researchers found that in just a few minutes of talking over an imaginary patient, unmasked volunteers spewed out bacteria which could potentially land on eyes or injection needles and cause infection.

One in every few thousand injections for vision loss results in endophthalmitis. But because patients typically need frequent injections, as many as 1 in 200 eventually get the infection.

Some of those infections are caused by Streptococcus, commonly found in the mouth.

The new finding “doesn’t prove anything conclusively,” said study author Dr. Colin McCannel, from the Jules Stein Eye Institute at the University of California, Los Angeles.

Still, he said, “My advice to patients would be, until the injection is complete … minimize conversation or talking with the physician.”

Dr. McCannel and his colleagues simulated a typical eye injection appointment in an ophthalmologist’s office. Volunteers stood in front of an exam chair, which had a plate for culturing bacteria placed where a patient’s head would be.

There, they read from a script for five minutes under different conditions — facing directly at the imaginary patient, with or without a mask, or facing sideways mask-free. Then, they stood in silence for five minutes. In a role reversal, the volunteers also took a go lying in the exam chair, reading the script with a bacteria plate mounted to their own foreheads.

When the 15 volunteers talked while wearing a mask or stood in silence, hardly any bacteria grew on the plates. But when they didn’t wear a face mask, either while facing the patient or turned away, most plates sprouted bacteria colonies. And when “patients” talked themselves, about half of the plates grew bacteria.

That shows that even though the eye injections aren’t major procedures and don’t happen in an operating room, patients and their doctors should still take the possibility of eye or injection needle contamination seriously, researchers said.

Teething an unlikely cause of serious symptoms

August 17, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

High fevers and other potentially serious symptoms in infants should not be written off as normal signs of teething, according to a new study.

The study, which followed 47 infants over eight months, found that teething typically caused fairly mild problems — including irritability, drooling, a day or so of diarrhea and poor sleep.

But it was not linked to any serious symptoms, like high fevers or prolonged bouts of diarrhea.

The findings, reported online August 8 in Pediatrics, are in line with other studies that have failed to connect teething to severe signs and symptoms.

On days when babies had a tooth erupt, they typically had a slight increase in temperature, explained Dr. Ramos-Jorge, a pediatric dentist at the Federal University of Minas Gerais in Brazil.

But they did not have outright fevers.

The findings are based on 47 Brazilian infants between the ages of 5 and 15 months. Over eight months, researchers visited their homes daily to take the babies’ temperature, check for tooth eruptions and interview mothers about any symptoms.

Overall, the study found, the babies were more likely to be fussy or have diarrhea, sleep problems or a poor appetite on the day a tooth emerged, or the day after. But the symptoms weren’t severe or prolonged.

Mouthwashing moms less likely to have an early labor

August 17, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

Expectant mothers who have gum disease are less likely to deliver their babies prematurely if they use mouthwash throughout their pregnancy, a new study suggests.

Pregnant women with periodontal disease are known to have more preemies than women with healthy gums. But it’s unclear whether that link is causal, and so whether better oral hygiene would make a difference.

The new study, although not ironclad proof, found that regularly using an alcohol-free mouth rinse appeared to cut women’s risk of early labor by about 75%.
The research team, which included staff and funding from Procter and Gamble, the company that markets the mouthwash used in the study, asked 71 pregnant women with gum disease to rinse twice a day for 30 seconds with Crest Pro Health mouthwash. The mouthwash does not contain alcohol.

They compared the number of pre-term births in this group to 155 pregnant women who also had gum disease, but rinsed only with water.

Among the water-only group, 34 mothers — or about one in five — delivered their babies before 35 weeks of pregnancy.

In the mouthwash group, just four mothers delivered their babies prematurely, which is about one in 20 births.

But she pointed out that the women knew which treatment they were getting — water or mouthwash — which in principle might have influenced the results.

Inflammation in gum disease involves the hormone-like substance prostaglandin E2, Dr. Jeffcoat explained. This same chemical is involved in labor.
The study, published online July 20th in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, found that mouthwash did appear to help the gum disease.

Mothers who didn’t use the mouthwash had more inflammation and sites along the gums where the tissue would bleed.

Aggressive teeth-cleaning is also used to fight gum disease during pregnancy, and a study from April found the procedure appeared to be safe for expectant mothers.

But whether it has an effect on pre-term births is still unclear.

IV immune globulin relieves neuropathy in primary Sjögren’s syndrome

August 17, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may offer some relief for patients with sensorimotor neuropathy or nonataxic sensory neuropathy associated with primary Sjögren’s syndrome, researchers from France report.

IVIg is an established therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and Guillain-Barré syndrome, and several case reports have suggested that IVIg may have value in Sjögren’s syndrome-associated peripheral neuropathy.

Dr. Xavier Mariette from Hôpital de Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre and colleagues in Club Rhumatismes et Inflammation assessed the effects and tolerability of IVIg treatment in a small retrospective study of 19 Sjögren’s syndrome patients (mean age, 60 years) with neuropathy (median duration of neuropathy, 9 years).

Patients received intravenous IVIg (2 g/kg) for 5 days a month (10 patients) or 2 days a month (9 patients) for a median 7 months. Response was assessed using the disability Modified Rankin Scale and a global evaluation by the practitioner.

Results, with a median follow-up of 27 months, were published online May 16th in Arthritis Care & Research.

All five patients with sensorimotor neuropathy, all four with nonataxic sensory neuropathy, and the sole patient with conduction block improved or stabilized on IVIg therapy. In contrast, only two of nine patients with ataxic neuropathy improved, and four worsened. Disease remained stable in the other three patients.

The nine patients who had dramatic improvements showed responses after only two infusions.

“Because of the gravity of peripheral neuropathy and the absence of efficient treatment, even the stabilization of clinical symptoms would be a valuable goal since the natural course of this disease leads to a spontaneous and continuous aggravation,” the researchers note.

After four to 12 months of treatment, five patients were able to have their IVIg infusions spaced every two or three months.

Ten of 13 patients who required corticosteroids were able to reduce their prednisone dosage from an average of 15 mg daily before IVIg to 10 mg after IVIg.

There were no severe side effects associated with IVIg treatment, and only one patient stopped treatment after one infusion because of nausea and lack of initial efficacy.

Oral Bacteria Attack Children Early

August 16, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

U.S. researchers have found evidence for bacteria associated with early childhood caries (ECC) in saliva of infants with no teeth. Their findings suggest that infections with bacteria like Streptococcus mutans inside the oral cavity occur earlier in the development of children than previously thought.

Mouth and dental problems contribute to absenteeism significantly

August 15, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

The British Dental Health Foundation (BDA), an independent oral health charity based in Rugby, is urging the UK workforce to consider how their daily routine could be affecting their oral health. Official figures made public by the Office for National Statistics indicate that around 18,000 people in the UK missed work in the final quarter of 2010 owing to mouth and dental problems.

Dentists, Pharmacists Raise Awareness of Medication-Induced Dry Mouth

August 13, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

Leading dental and pharmacy organizations are teaming up to promote oral health and raise public awareness of dry mouth, a side effect commonly caused by taking prescription and over-the-counter medications.

New dental injection system

August 13, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

Researchers from Newcastle University have developed a dental injection system that could reduce patients’ pain when being injected. The system, a modification of a dental local anaesthetic cartridge that allows a buffer solution to be mixed with the anaesthetic, was recently recognised with a Medical Futures Innovation Award, a European showcase of early-stage innovation in health care.


The Role of Biology in Orthodontic Practice

August 1, 2011 Posted by Dr. Sasha Baston, DDS

Orthodontic tooth movement results from forces applied to teeth, that evoke cellular responses in the teeth and their surrounding tissues, including the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and gingiva. According to Profs Young Guk Park (Korea) and Ze’ev Davidovitch (USA), it is advantageous for the orthodontist to know the details of the biological events that unfold during tooth movement, because some of these details may differ from one person to another.